IMPROVEMENT OF SELECTED INDUCTION CULTURE MEDIA ON CALLUS INDUCTION IN ANTHER CULTURE OF ANTHURIUM AND A HISTOLOGICAL STUDY ON ITS CALLUS FORMATION

B Winarto, N A Mattjik, A Purwito, B Marwoto

Abstract


Studi ini telah dilakukan pada laboratorium kultur jaringan, Balai Penelitian Tanaman Hias Pacet – Cianjur sejak bulan Februari hingga Oktober 2008. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengoptimalisasi media terseleksi dalam induksi pembentukan kalus, mengungkap asal-usul sel yang membentuk kalus hasil kultur anther dan proses pembentukan tunasnya. Media terseleksi yang diperbaiki adalah 1) MMS-TBN yang mengandung 0,5 mg/l TDZ, 1,0 mg/l BAP dan 0,01 mg/l NAA (Medium Winarto, WM) dan 2) MMS III yang ditambah dengan 1,5 mg/l TDZ, 0,75 mg/l BAP dan 0,02 mg/l NAA (Medium Winarto dan Rachmawati, WRM). Perlakuan perbaikan dilakukan melalui pembuangan dan penambahan 2,4- D pada konsentrasi 0.5 mg/l dan penurunan kekuatan medium dari kekuatan penuh, setengah, seperempat, seperdelapan, seperenambelas dan nol. Percobaan faktorial disusun menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok dengan empat kali ulangan. Hasil studi ini menunjukkan bahwa induksi kalus tertinggi secara jelas ditemukan pada WRM. Medium ini mampu menginduksi potensi tumbuh anther (PGA) hingga 81% dengan persentase regenerasi anther 49% dan 2.7 kalus per ulangan. Peningkatan yang nyata juga dicatat melalui perlakuan reduksi kekuatan medium dengan seperdelapan kekuatan medium WRM sebagai penurunan kekuatan yang terbaik. Perlakuan ini mampu menstimulasi PGA hingga 58% dengan 29% PAR dan 1.8 NCF. Dari studi histologi diketahui bahwa kalus hasil kultur anther berasal dari sel-sel dinding anther. Kapasitas morfogenesis yang tinggi dari sel-sel dinding anther inilah yang menyebabkan tidak adanya efek androgenesis pada sel-sel mikrospora yang ada didalamnya Kata-kata kunci: Perbaikan, media, kalus, anther, histology dan anthurium

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